Estradiol is the predominant, and most potent, circulating estrogen. It plays an important role in modulating immunity.
Progesterone balances the actions of estradiol in the body and has wide-ranging physiological roles.
Testosterone and DHEA-S helps maintain libido and increase lean muscle mass and metabolic rate. In women, high T and DHEA are linked to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), insulin resistance, and abdominal weight gain.
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) binds steroid hormones for transport in the bloodstream. If SHBG increases while sex steroid levels decrease, this can indicate overtraining syndrome.
Cortisol imbalances can create problems with blood sugar control, sleep patterns, appetite, food cravings, and the immune system. Chronically elevated cortisol is a risk factor for pre-diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) elevations, even within the high-normal range, are linked with hypothyroidism, low metabolic rate and weight gain.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the production of reproductive hormones. Low levels can be caused by excessive testosterone supplementation or opioid painkiller use and are seen in exercise-induced amenorrhea in women.
Free Triodothyronine (fT3) and Free Thyroxine (fT4) imbalances indicate hypo- or hyperthyroidism. Imbalances in thyroid function can lead to low stamina, fatigue, depression, and low libido.
Thyroid Peroxidase (TPOab) antibodies at high levels are a sign of autoimmune thyroid illness.
Vitamin D deficiency does not have obvious symptoms but has been linked with a wide range of diseases including susceptibility to infections like flu, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, depression, and several cancers.
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is an indirect measure of the average circulating glucose levels over the previous three months. Normally between 4% and 5.6%, levels between 5.7% and 6.4% are indicative of poor blood sugar control and prediabetes, while 6.5% or more is indicative of type 2 diabetes and consequently high cardiovascular disease risk.
Blood lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL) are a barometer of cardiovascular disease risk that can be improved by fitness training and other lifestyle modifications such as better diet.
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) gives an indication of inflammation in the body.